Continuing the trend, I made headway into removing ancillaries from the car.
The water pump boss was fitted with three loose studs and a bolt. I will check the threads and see if I can just refit bolts with non-slip washers.
After a bit of a clean with the vacuum cleaner, the front strengthening brace turns out to be riveted to a big U shaped channel that is screwed to the sheet metal as a strengthening shape. Next up will be to try and remove that, which will require cleaning and paint before refitting. Then I can see about removing the grille brace and then the grille itself. That will provide very good access to remove the engine.
I removed the alternator and a few wires, which cleared up a lot of space. I shall not be refitting that alternator, instead I have my eye on an 85 Amp alternator that is mounted inside a housing that looks the same as the original generator dynamo.
I decided to go on a little tangent as a break from pipes and wipers.
Step one, remove the slam panel and strengthening bar. Discovered the bottom of the strengthening bar was not attached to anything. There’s also the remains of a sheared-off bolt stuck in one of the holes.
A previous owner had also decided to remove the engine- but there’s a strengthening rib in the way. It is held in with 8 coarse threaded bolts. 4 of them are small and attach in from the front, 4 are much larger and are accessed from up behind the headlights. Instead of undoing the bolts and removing the bar to gain access to remove the engine, someone decided to chop through the rib with a grinder and forcibly bend it out of the way. A genuine case of brute force and ignorance.
I took a brush and removed all the spider webs from up inside the wheel well. I carefully took a look for spiders but could not see any. The method here is to leave it a few days as the weather is mostly warm right now and see if any new webs are formed. That way I know I need to break out the bug spray before reaching up inside there to undo the bolts.
I found more metric bolts holding things in- in this case, the radiator. Cut the lower hose off, then fought at it with a pair of Channel-Lock pliers until it was free from the spigot. Fought with it, the fan shroud and the fan until it was safely removed. Fairly heavy staining shows it’s been leaking for a while, the green staining appears to be from the radiator cap, the neck is fractured where it screws on. The brown is more recent, there’s a pinhole where the core meets the top tank.
There’s a little bit more room now. I’m going to investigate removal of the strengthening bar, the top mount for the grille and the grille itself. That will open up a large amount of room to remove the engine without having to lift it up high.
I left off at this point. I have concern over metric bolts with random washers, coming the wrong way out of the water pump pulley. The fan is a generic item, incorrect for the car. I may try find the correct one. Also, the thermostat is missing. I’m not sure what to think about that- either it was broken and they couldn’t find a replacement or it has been removed to gloss over an overheating issue. Time will tell.
Once the rust converter had dried, I painted the exposed areas with a superb color match. I looked at it this way, at least it’s blue.
I took a slight diversion as I had stopped at the hardware store to get some stainless steel machine screws, as the front right indicator assembly had the wrong screws in and kept falling out, particularly so as I had added a seal which was padding it out.
At the same time I found some old stock (probably twenty years or so) 2057NA bulbs, 5W/21W with self-colored amber glass.
The screws, now not a mix of a wood-screw and a metric panel screw hold the light fixture correctly in place.
Illuminated, the assembly glows orange for parking lights and brighter orange for turn signals. The vehicle is grandfathered into the rules and is allowed to have white front turn signals due to its age, but people expect to see orange, so I shall use the orange bulbs. They can always be put back to white easily, just by changing the bulb.
I then turned my attention to the windshield wipers again. The arms appear to be generic replacement items and were set up very badly. They did not sit flush with the bottom of the screen and they overlapped the center divider of the windshield glass. I took them apart and removed just over an inch of the extendable arm.
I set the angle of the wiper blade to match the base of the windshield. The above picture shows how the wiper arms both were.
The wiper arms were fitted and tuck down evenly with the base of the screen. I bought some rather old wiper blades from the local auto parts store that had been sat on a back shelf for years.
The wipers wipe a short arc on the screen in operation, and tuck themselves down against the base of the glass when switched off. I may need to get a seal rebuild kit for the motor after all because it does like to stick and hisses without moving the arms.
I cleaned and straightened the vacuum lines. Unfortunately this one is a little short.
I removed the fuel/vacuum pump assembly also to try and determine why the device had been bypassed. It appears that the vacuum lines were bypassed for no good reason and the pipes cut, and the fuel pipe crimped connection seems to have broken off so that was cut up and the electric fuel pump added in its’ place. The fuel pump cleaned up nicely, the vacuum pump appears to work correctly.
Finally, I decided to try and see how I could best route the vacuum lines. I think, after this exercise that I shall purchase some new metal line and create some all-new metal lines to the original specification, rather than try connect everything up with quarter inch rubber hose.
Spent a little money on things for the car this time around.
A brand new, 3-ton low-profile shop jack. It has the capacity and lift capability to raise the car up off the ground safely. My small trolley jack was not capable and did not fit under the car, as it was too tall.
Work started on the windshield wipers, which had never worked since I got the car. They would attempt to move a little bit but that was it. They would not stay running, instead would just hiss. With the wiring removed from up under the dash, access was significantly improved.
First, the control knob for the wipers was removed. This has a small gearbox and a wire in a Bowden cable that runs to the wiper motor to actuate the valve.
Knocked the locking collar off the control with a screwdriver. I’m not sure why there’s a large washer under the knob, I think this is incorrect.
The wiper assembly is manufactured by Trico. I’d never taken one of these apart before, so a learning experience in vacuum motors was to be had.
The side panel came off to reveal a spring-loaded flip-flop that’s activated by the motor spindle when it reaches the end of its travel, and a plastic valve that directs the vacuum to one of two ports at a time.
The wiper motor is predominantly made from the semicircular lower section. A flap is drawn from side to side, and the grease inside forms a seal. The grease had dried up and the seal was poor. I cleaned everything out and re-greased it.
The Bowden cable was stiff to operate. It had a couple of kinks in which I straightened out between my fingers, and it was oiled and left to soak. This significantly improved its’ function.
Because it was out, I polished the pipe that takes the vacuum. Sadly someone has shortened it, so it may be changed again for a new stainless pipe.
The motor was reassembled and tested. It operates smoothly and with significant force. The self-park also works- in operation the wipers will wipe an arc on the screen away from the edges, switched off they tuck themselves down tightly against the frame of the window.
The wiper arms, now disconnected from the wiper motor were difficult to move, particularly the driver’s side. With the dash removed, access to undo the wiper mechanism is good, so I undid the driver’s side spindle clamp.
Breaking the old seal, I removed the wiper escutcheon and linkage from the car.
Lain out, the assembly is in remarkably good condition, just dirty. I tried to move the spindle by hand and it was very difficult.
I soaked the spindle down with penetrating oil, which washed out a lot of dirt and rust. I then finished up with regular engine oil which made the assembly easy to turn.
It was left to sit for the night and drain down.
I cleaned up the hole left by the mechanism. There’s a little rust which will require treatment before reassembly.
I then fought with the glove-box. It is a hardboard affair, held in place by screws. Removed, access to the passenger-side wiper mechanism is straightforward.
Inspection of the passenger side escutcheon showed something I hadn’t spotted on the driver’s side because it was obscured by dirt- a slight drill-through from the screw-hole that the mounting bolt fit into, through to the inside of the shaft area.
I began by squeezing grease into the screw hole.
Then, forced the grease down by screwing the mounting bolt into the hole. This was successful until the interior filled with grease, whereby more grease would escape through the threads of the bolt than was forced through the bearings.
I had a thought and went offered the mounting bolt up against one of the grease nipples on the front suspension. It looked to be about right so I undid it and fitted it to the wiper linkage. A perfect fit.
Grease gun fitted to the nipple, and fresh clean grease pumped into the assembly under significant pressure.
This started to force dirt and rust out through the bearings. Rotating the spindle back and forth proved an effective way to clear the bearings out.
All cleaned up and free to turn, I turned my attention to the seals. New ones are available but I had bought some high density foam rubber to repair the rear light seals on the Renault a while back.
Cut out some paper and made a pencil rubbing of the edge of the mounting hole in the top of the scuttle.
Cut out and transferred the shape to foam, trimmed everything up to fit.
Both linkages fitted with seals. If these don’t work I’ll get some proper ones.
Final thing was to apply some rust treatment to the exposed metal. That’ll dry thoroughly, receive a little paint and have the wiper assemblies refitted.
I refitted the now-clean headlight switch back to the dash. Unfortunately now the rest of the dash dials look dirty in comparison. I shall have to remove the heater controls and clean them also.
Electrical work continued with gauges. The fuel gauge was similarly burned up inside, along with the temperature gauge. Measuring the diameter of the wire on the fuel gauge coils showed it was the same diameter as the new wire I had bought.
The mounting bucket was also showing signs of age; the paint was flaking off from heat and there were scorch-marks one the paint also. Cleaned down the original paint (which came off very easily with carburetor cleaner).
Counted the number of turns on the fuel gauge and re-wound the spool carefully. Testing on a battery with 6V converter in place- I decioded to use 6V because the wire gauge was the same as original, lower current through the sender in the tank and everything could be set up identically to how it was removed.
Calibrated the irons to the correct resistance values -0, 15 and 30 Ohms. 15 Ohms showing middle-of-the-range.
I then began to readdress the temperature gauge. Operating it at 6 Volts showed there was insufficient magnetic flux in the middle of the needle’s range to hold it in place over the friction of the pivot.
Operating it at 12V as originally intended solved this but I had wound the coils for the original spec sender unit, which is no longer available. The original sender unit had a very low range of resistance values for temperature, 100F being about 300 Ohms. I purchased a (slightly) more modern sender, a Wells TU-4. It has approximately twice the resistance per temperature, is physically the same size and is more readily available, as it fits mid 50’s Chevy trucks.
I decided to abandon attempting to calibrate the gauge while connected and instead started plotting temperature versus resistance on paper.
The gauge is wired in a Y-configuration- I had missed this previously. One coil is directly across the supply voltage, the other is across supply through the sender. I decided that I should be able to add a resistance across the other coil and reduce the pull of the magnetic field, allowing the higher resistance (and lower current) of the modulated coil to pull the needle off COLD sooner.
Initial testing proved successful, with the gauge capable of being adjusted to be accurate from the lower end of the range all the way up to maximum. It over-reads a little between 100-130F but is accurate at 180F and 230F. I decided knowing if the engine was too hot was more important to know if it was cold.
Reassembled into the frame and tested the gauge again using the frame’s ground, as occurs in the car. Successful testing with good results.
I turned my attention to the paint on the dash, which was scratched and thin in places from years of polish and being handled. I started by stripping all the gauges out and taking the old paint off with a brass brush.
The dash was then masked up, painted, reassembled and tested.
After removing the wiring from the engine bay, I started work on removing the old wiring from under the dash.
I removed the fuse box. Under the dash should be significantly more tidy than it is; a lot of the wires had been pulled down out of the loom and were just left to dangle. I also undid the three-set of gauges from under the dash, as there is no real reason to have them there.
I heated the bulb of the temperature gauge with my hot air gun to test it. Still, good, it may end up in another application. The oil pressure gauge worked fine so found a home on my lawn tractor. The ammeter, which had never really read much at all was connected incorrectly (in line from the alternator) which would explain the lack of movement.
I filled the hole from the oil gallery where the old takeoff pipe was for the oil pressure gauge, until I have a replacement pipe. This is simply so I do not empty the oil pan all over the floor when I spin the engine over.
The fuse box (and lid, found under the driver’s seat, sadly covered in paint) is quite comprehensive for the age of the car.
The dash looks better without the gauges, the engine compartment is similarly tidy. I need to investigate the wiring that goes downward under the body as all the wires destined for the back of the car run up above the driver’s head.
The amount of wires in the pile, steadily growing. This represents most of the wire from the fuse box and under the dash.
The dash cluster is held in with 4 nuts, moderately accessible from up underneath.
I clipped the wires from the back of the dash to provide better access and removed the cluster.
Not a reproduction item. January 1951, and they had built 4000-odd cars by that time. Needed to be ready for the new model year!
Further disassembly of the gauge cluster to remove the side gauges and clean the perspex lenses. Over the years they have been wiped a lot of time and have become scratched. On the inside, a fine haze was apparent.
Part the way through, to show comparison of clean versus dirty lenses.
The reason for the haze on the lens would become apparent later on.
The speedometer frame had ghostly images of the numbers, faded into the paint. A little polish saw the paint clean again.
Gently buffing the scratches out of the speedometer face with my polishing wheel in my twist drill.
All clean! The improvement is immediately visible. I still need to take it apart and redo the satin black paint where it has all rubbed off over the years.
I connected my air line up to the oil pressure gauge. It’s a mechanical, Bourdon-tube device. It still registers correctly.
I then tried connecting up the other gauges to a 6V power source to test if they were still operational. Quick testing with a multi-meter showed both had at least one failed coil. The haze on the inside of the lens was from the enamel insulation on the wire having caught fire. Previous owner had connected the dash up to 12V when they did the conversion. That must have liberated quite a lot of smoke- and will be the reason for the additional gauges.
Luckily the coils are secured to the armature with nuts and bolts. I removed one coil. The failure is easy to see.
I modified my twist drill to have a cammed section on the chuck (made from electrical tape) that would operate a microswitch every revolution. The switch then in turn operates a small mechanical counter.
Counted the number of turns of wire on the bobbin. It had burned up and split in three places.
Took my micrometer and meaured the diameter of the wire. 7.2 thou’, which is 33AWG. Being as the gauges were both inoperable due to having been burned up, I decided to re-wind them for 12V instead.
36AWG enameled copper wire, with half the cross-sectional area of 33AWG, and twice the resistance per foot. Winding twice the number of turns of this onto the bobbin will make it suitable for 12V operation.
I stripped the enamel off the end of the wire with sandpaper, then checked the end of the wire for good continuity with my meter. This end contacts directly to the metal of the coil bobbin.
Carefully wound the wire on. This was a moderately slow procedure because I was manually guiding the wire as it wrapped and the cam operates only briefly so the counter is not actuated enough to count over about 100RPM.
Tested the end to end resistance of the coil. 26 Ohms, in the correct ball park expected from this gauge of wire.
The second coil, which did not catch fire but charred significantly was also removed.
It was unwound- this side has more turns.
Again measured to make sure it was the same gauge of wire.
Carefully wound on, counting every turn, trying to make the winding even. Nearly out of space!
Tested for resistance- the number of turns being more, the longer the wire and the greater the resistance.
Fitted both coils back into the armature and soldered them to their pegs.
Through a moderate resistance, the gauge now reads properly! I need to calibrate it- the service manual provides the curve of the thermistor in the engine bay per temperature. I can take the three calibration points (at the top of the scale) and set the coils up accordingly. They are adjustable on slides to set the gauge up to read the correct deflection per current passed.
The frame the gauges connect to was a little worse for wear. It wasn’t painted very well to begin with, the brown staining from where the gauge had burned was evident and the heat from the dash illumination had made the paint in that vicinity all flaky, which was getting onto the inside of the lenses as I moved the dash about.
I rubbed the old paint back, to remove loose paint and provide a good keyed surface.
A couple of coats of Rustoleum Heirloom White later (a remarkably good color match) and the frame is looking really nice.
At the same time I heated up the paint and windscreen washer bottle holder (the evening was a cold one, not far from freezing) in prep for paint.
A nice gloss Sky Blue. The frame should have a yellow sticker on the front for screen-wash instructions.
While that was drying I vacuumed, shampooed and generally cleaned up the back of the passenger cabin.
I was puzzling over the headlight switch. I needed to remove it from the dash as it was stiff to operate. However, I couldn’t figure out how to pull it out. The knob wouldn’t fit through the escutcheon after the mounting screw was undone.
Turns out there’s a spring-loaded pin in the back of the mechanism that presses a spring-loaded collar out of the way and allows the entire knob and shaft assembly to be pulled from the switch.
I took the switch to pieces, lubricated and cleaned it as all the old grease had dried up and was more of a hindrance than a help. Sadly the rheostat is only a few ohms, designed to dim a fairly heavy load (10 4W bulbs), and will have very little effect on the LEDs that have been retrofitted. At least it can be used to turn the dash on and off.
I polished the plastic and chrome, cleaned the grip with a brass brush and polished the locking screw as it is visible when the switch is pulled out. Not bad looking now.
I started working through some other items on the to-do list- plenty of little things that need to be completed. First was the air filter bolt that I’d had sitting in ascorbic acid for a couple days to remove the surface rust. After a quick cleaning with wet-n-dry paper I put it into etch primer and then gloss black enamel.
I cleaned the exterior of the carburetor down a little and noticed the instruction to “OIL INSIDE SCREWS”. I removed the lid to inspect the mechanism- the throttle pump mixture enrichment system.
An interesting set of levers and slides and springs. Oiled with regular engine oil and reassembled, clean.
I bought some lengths of fully copper cored wire. 16AWG pink (for dimmable dash lighting) and 14AWG purple (not sure which circuit yet, possibly side/tail lights).
Also, the box of bullet connectors I ordered arrived. The car takes 3.9mm connectors mainly, which are not the standard I’m used to. Lucas used larger 5mm ones, Delco decided something smaller was good.
The connectors fit the smaller of the two sizes of bullet connectors used on the car. The brake light switch is no exception.
I removed the radio from under the dash to give a little more room to work. Apparently it’s a special model designed to fit in a standard radio hole; I find it wasn’t the right size, but that’s the way it goes. I think I’ll be hunting for a junked radio and will probably gut that and replace the innards with something a little more modern and give audio-in capability, too whilst retaining the original “Chieftain” radio look.
I removed the original radio escutcheon and polished it up. It is pitted but responded well.
At this point I was left with the three after-market gauges under the dash. The ammeter will disconnect easily, the oil pressure gauge will also come out without too much trouble but the water temperature gauge required the engine to be drained of coolant before it could be removed. I undid the drain tap on the side of the engine block and nothing came out. So I pulled the entire assembly out- still nothing. I poked with a screwdriver and was rewarded with black rusty sludge.
I found that the old vacuum line had the correct union fitting on it so screwed that in, attached a length of pipe and tried to put city water pressure onto it to clear it out (60psi). That did not work, so I hooked up the pressure washer (4400psi) to it. I blew the pipes off a couple times but eventually the blockage cleared.
I flushed the engine from as many different directions as I could- backwards from the drain, in from the heater takeoff on the head, in from the radiator (through the water pump).
Lots of regular iron oxide. The factory manual states to use plain water as coolant. I’m not going to go down that route- instead, it’ll be having a proper mix of antifreeze and rust inhibitor.
Finally rinsing clean, I let it drain down.
I cleaned up the drain tap and reinstalled it.
I then turned my attention to the wiring. I removed the two clamp plates on the firewall. One has some instructions about the fuses printed on it (very faded and worn off) and the other has the spring clips for the in-line fuses and also clamps the main wire bundle and speedometer cable.
Started cutting out and undoing wires. Fought with the coil resistor as it had been done up very tightly into the metal and had rusted in.
I removed the neutral inhibitor/reversing light combo switch. Taken apart, cleaned and reassembled- it wasn’t very bad inside but the contacts were a little pitted. Reassembled and readjusted to the correct position.
I got a little gung-ho with the cutters. None of the original wiring is in any really useable shape, particularly where it has been damp on the exterior of the car. The shellac washes off, the cotton absorbs the moisture and rots, and the rubber absorbs the moisture from the cotton and goes all hard and cumbly. Once it’s gone the water gets inside and the aluminum turns to powder, especially with an ionic charge on it from the battery all the time.
I rubbed down the metal of the firewall with a stainless steel wire brush to remove the worst of the loose oxides.
Then liberally applied rust neutralizer, which turns purple in contact with rust.
Once dry, the rust converter turns black and forms a surface suitable for paint.
The fuse-holder/wire clamp main plate was soaked in ascorbic acid for a couple days and then brass-brushed, primed and painted with gloss black enamel.
The car’s wiring calls for two, 14 Amp inline fuses. I think this is a design feature left over from before the auxiliary fuse panel was included, and these will likely have been the only fuses on the car. This is the only remaining intact one, and the steel case was in poor shape. It took a fight to undo it.
The component pieces- the cups that the fuse connects to are brass and have had the wires soldered on. I shall replace the wires. It received an overnight soak in ascorbic acid, which did not really do much (reason for this possibly later).
I took a countersunk screw and clamped the fuse holder body in the chuck of my drill.
I then spun up the holder and held low-grit sandpaper against it to remove the worst of the corrosion.
Finished up with 1500-grit wet-n-dry paper just to give it a bit of a sheen. There were traces of copper to be seen, and the corrosion on the surface look more verdigris than red iron rust. The fuse panel shows “Gray” and “Gold” fuse holders to identify which is which. I’m thinking the “gold” one was actually copper plated- maybe brass.
A quick session to electroplate the surface to try and prevent it from deteriorating too quickly.
Side by side comparison is quite striking. I wanted “careworn”.
Put together temporarily so as not lo lose the component parts, it looks much better.
It was a little cold when I painted the front of the holder, so it bloomed and went matte. I have since re-painted it, but this is the location of the fuse holder is here, both the wires just loop in and go back inside the car.
I started this day by attempting to jack up the car, in order to access the nuts holding the (badly made and ill-fitting) battery tray that was put in to house the new 12V battery.
Lifted up a little at the lowest point of the engine cross-member, with a block of wood to take up the slack, I ran out of jack! My little trolley jack just doesn’t have enough travel to bring the front wheels off the ground. I also discovered that the driver’s side front wheel only has five of the six studs holding the wheel on. I learned that this is common, as the driver’s side wheels have a reverse thread on them. I can see the benefit of this if the wheels had a single central hub post with a knock-off spinner but for lug nuts? Not really. So, on goes the air-gun, set to counterclockwise.. rrrTTTTTT, RRRRTTTTTTTTT. RRRRRRRRAK-whooooiEEeeeee. There goes the stud as it’s tightened beyond breaking point.
With the battery tray removed, a lot more access is to be had on the driver’s side of the engine compartment. This was not originally much of a problem as the car was specced with a very slim 6V battery. You can see the bottom of the bracket that supported the original 6V battery, attached to the frame rail.
Both pieces removed from the car- I do not intend on having the battery mounted inside the engine compartment- there simply isn’t adequate room for a modern 12V battery.
Many, many years of dirt adorn the driver’s side frame rail. Access is poor, even with the original battery and that is compounded by any leaks from the battery drip down and collect in the grime. The suspension grease points looked rather dry, also.
I pushed the front end of the car outside and started up the pressure washer to make a start on cleaning up the old oil, grease and dirt in the area. I finished up by using my leaf blower to dry it all down.
The pressure washer did not get everything, but it made a significant improvement.
One thing I had wanted to address was the free-play slack in the steering. Wobbling the steering wheel from side to side inside the car showed that the dead zone of free movement did not turn the driver’s side wheel, but further investigation was required.
I employed some assistance and had my niece turn the steering wheel to and fro while I took a look at the steering system. This showed that the free play was in the bottom of the steering box, where the shaft comes out to attach to the Pitman arm.
Now a lot cleaner, I was happy to remove the filler plug from the top of the steering box. What I saw did not inspire confidence.
As it needed doing, I wire-brushed the filler plug and cleaned it down with carburetor cleaner.
At this point I tried to gently torque down the lash adjustment screw for the output shaft (big screw and nut on view here). That did not improve matters, so I am going to hazard a guess the lower bushing, a plain bronze item- is worn beyond limits.
I opened up the top casing after checking the workshop manual for spring-loaded components. There are none marked.
The top bushing appears to be in really very good order. There’s a lot of regular chassis grease stuck in the top…
The steering box itself is a cause for concern. A common problem is the things are filled with regular chassis grease. That is only good for items designed to use it- in this case the roller (at the bottom, vertical section) sits against the worm (dim, very bottom of the circular aperture), pushes the grease out of the way- “channeling” it. It then never returns to the surface, allowing the pieces to grind with no lubrication. The correct lubricant is a very slow oil, with a consistency similar to molasses- GM specify a “self-leveling” grease. Research shows that John Deere “Corn head” grease has these properties, it’s used in the worm/wheel gearboxes of corn harvesting machines.
Not trying to make too much of a nut-and-bolt restoration, I cleaned up the bolts that secure the top plate of the steering box. I see little point replacing bolts with dirty threads and old grease and dirt on them- all for the sake of a few minutes with a wire brush.
At this juncture I decided that the best way forward will be to work on this once the engine is out- ideally the entire steering box needs to come out but there’s a large nut holding the Pitman arm on and access is not very good from up underneath. However, I do know what the issue is and that can be rectified.
I decided that although the silvered paint had significantly improved the reflector, the prep I had done was not great (it was more a “let’s try this out and see” action) so it wouldn’t last, and plus, the reflector when viewed through the lens appeared very gray. Aesthetically I found this displeasing and figured I could improve matters.
I decided I would attempt to plate the reflector with a shiny metal surface. I did a bit of research and determined that nickel plating should work quite well. In order to plate nickel onto steel, it is advised first to plate with copper. This is because nickel is chemically different enough from iron not to want to adhere to, so a go-between, copper, which will stick to iron and nickel is used as a substrate.
Note that the chemicals used in this process are poisonous (copper) and toxic (nickel). If you follow this, work outside in a well ventilated area and wear gloves and safety glasses. Also wash your hands thoroughly with plenty of soap and water if you get any of it on your skin. Store the electrolyte in well-marked containers, and keep away from children (ooh, pretty colors!) and pets.
I bought some acetic acid (vinegar), hydrogen peroxide, a source of pure copper (scrubbing pads), a source of pure nickel (welding rods), a glass dish and made a power supply from an old ATX computer PSU.
To begin,I added a 50/50 mix of vinegar and peroxide to the dish and placed a copper scrubbing pad into the mixture. It began to dissolve, creating the electrolyte, copper (II) acetate.
Then to make the nickel electrolyte, made in a similar fashion- 100% vinegar with a pinch of sodium chloride (table salt) to boost the conductivity. Nickel does not dissolve by itself in acetic acid, the molar strength is not high enough. It is instead made by “helping” it by passing an electric current between two nickel electrodes.
After a couple of hours a modest amount of nickel had dissolved into the acid.
I plated a piece of bar steel with copper, then plated it with nickel. Positive to the source of metal, negative to the piece to be plated.
Although probably a little “fast”, I used 12 Volts across the nickel, which yielded good results. The copper required much lower voltage and current to plate well. The slower the process,the better quality the finish.
I was pleased with the results on the test piece, so set about taking the turn signal assembly apart.
Thankfully in good shape underneath, this area has been subject to some repairs in the past.
The lamp broke down into further pieces. You can see the silver painted surface of the reflector. It previously looked the same as the housing. Someone had painted it black, and then it had rusted.
I set the steel pieces into an ascorbic acid (vitamin C) bath and left them overnight for the acid to work on the oxides. As advertised, vitamin C is a powerful anti-oxidant.
After half a day soaking, I pulled the pieces out and scrubbed the loose oxides off with a wire brush and left them to soak again.
I probably should have left the steel in the ascorbic acid longer but I decides that the metal was very pitted from the rust and I could clean it by running current “backwards” in a bath of vinegar, which draws the surface of the steel away to the cathode, leaving it clean.
Using a random piece of steel rod I had laying around, I ran the reflector at 12 Volts in vinegar with a little salt.
I then used a couple of grit wheels in my Dremel to attempt to smooth the surface of the reflector a little.
This improved the reflector significantly- after all the plated surface will follow every contour the metal has. The more smooth the surface, the better the appearance of the plating. I put the reflector in the copper plating bath and set it on at 3.3 Volts.
Due to the surface area of the reflector, the current passed on the first run was too high- seen here with burgundy deposits. The copper plates too fast, forms large flaky layers that do not adhere to the base metal. Also, the impurities in the steel precipitate into the electrolyte and stick to the surface, giving poor, patchy plating. Constantly moving the object to be plated alleviates this.
Tried again but with some resistance in line to reduce the current.
With a good adhesion from the copper on the second try, I then set about plating the reflector with nickel. Nickel electrolyte produces quite a lot of gas and self-cleans its surface whilst plating.
Although not an ideal candidate, the reflector was significantly improved.
With only the parking light (5 Watts), the light thrown forwards is quite significant. A good result, in any case.
I painted the rear sides of the reflector and housing gloss black, as they would have been when new.
I also plated the housing, as it is visible through the lens. Previously it looked a bit out of place, black against the gray of the reflector.
Evenly lit now, compared to the other side, which really only glows where the bulb is (as this one was before I began). More visible, which is good as the lights are low down and the turn signals are the wrong color by today’s expectations (white, not orange).
Finally, with the light off and the sunshine hitting the lens, it looks a lot more even and matches the headlight a lot better. Just the other side to do now!
Buoyed by the fact I got the turn signals working, which was a bad connection to the multi-plug (yes, there is one multi-plug on this car!), I decided to experiment with the front lights.
The front lights worked but were rather dim and only illuminated in the center of the glass. I started by rubbing the reflector down. Someone had painted it black- reasons unknown. I guess that it was either chromed or painted white from the factory.
A rather half-hearted effort, admittedly. However, the reflectors are very pitted and will never be perfect.
I used some “Shiny Silver” spray paint. It is a dull aluminum color at the best of times. Still, masked the car up and painted the reflector.
A significant improvement. Pulled all the paper off and reassembled the light.
The difference is significant. I think I shall have to take it apart again and redo the rest in silver, but I may also have a go and experiment with plating.
The turn signal is now very visible from a distance. The other side is not as good, as the bulb holder has been replaced and the new one welded in place. It is slightly off-center, meaning the light does not illuminate evenly, but I think improving the reflector will help, regardless.